The art of Ashiq – a musical form of oral art formed in a folk environment – AZERTAC

Baku, March 9, AZERTAC

Ashiq’s art is a musical form of oral art formed in a folk environment and in terms of force of impact, popularity and uniqueness of maturity, it is an expression that has no analogue. . It is a small performance, the music, the saz and the author – ashug unite here.

Ashiq art includes songs praising ancient epic legends, people, freedom, heroism, friendship, love songs. The ashiq art is synthetic, that is, the ashiq (minstrel) composes music, writes poetry, plays the saz and dances simultaneously. And the wind ensemble and the balaban often accompany the ashiq. However, the main instrument of the ashug is the saz. Saz is an ancient stringed musical instrument. The most common genre of ashiq art is the epic genre, that is, epics, especially heroic epics. The vocal and instrumental parts of the epics replace the poems with parts of speech.

In the lyrical genre of praise of ashiq art (tariflama), the beatification (“gozallama) is especially famous. This gozallama can be dedicated both to the beautiful and beautiful woman and to the hero, for example, the brave Koroglu , his legendary Qırat. Part of ashiq songs are full of sadness (Yaniq Karami, Dilqami), and the other part can be like in Afsharı Sharili songs, which are wonderful examples of ashug lyrics.

In ashiq art, the ustadname genre is also interesting, as an adviser to songs.

National poetry genres qoshma, mukhammas, ustadname, qıfılband, as well as its poetic forms like garayli, divani, qoshma, tajnis are favorite songs of ashug. These forms can be included in captions.

The most widely used poem rhyme in creating the ashug is the syllable. The structure of the main ashug songs is in the form of four (verses). Each verse verse has a beginning and each verse is separated from each other by the instrumental solo.

In ancient times and in the Middle Ages, ashugs were called “ozan-minstrel, varsaq, dada.”

The oldest written sources about the predecessors of modern Azerbaijani ashiq – ozan, their ancient life, love, patriotism, bravery are the popular epic of the 7th century Dede Korkut.

Historically, musical folklore has had a great influence on the creativity of composers. For the first time, features of ashug music were used in the Koroglu opera by composer Uzeyir Hajibayov. Another composer Gara Garayev combining the technical means of modern music with ashug music was able to successfully create his combination in the second part of the third symphony.

Although the ashiq art as a set of arts combines few arts in itself, but the main place in this set is the traditional havajat (set of songs). The set of traditional ashug songs rich in means of musical description and artistic summary are characterized by consistent aesthetic value, refined language style, profound philosophical means and ethical orientation.

The expressiveness of oral folk poetry (fingers count syllable rhyme) and poetry writing (aruz) forms the basis of ashug havajat’s poetry.

As part of the havajat, the classical ashiq poem accomplishes the qaydaqoyuchuluq (normative) task.

Here traditional classical melodies of ashug bayati, garayli, qoshma and tajnis are based on poetic forms. There are more than 80 options of different areas (Karami, Afsharı, Kurdu, Dilqami, Yaniq Karami) of ashug melodies.

The mutual connection of poetic text in ashiq melodies has an important influence on the formation of their melodic-rhythmic form characteristics. The main rhyme of ashiq poetry is syllabic rhyme. The structure of the melodies is formed in relation to the shape and syllable structure of the poem, the separating features. Gurbani (16th century), Abbas Tufarganli, Sari Ashiq (17th century), Khasta Gasim, Ashiq Valeh, Ashiq Dilgam (18th century), Ashiq Ali, Ashiq Alasgar, Ashiq Hussain Shamkirli (19th century) and etc are considered classics of the ashiq art. Among modern day ashiq, Ashiq Huseyn Bozalganli, Ashiq Asad, Ashiq Mirza, Ashiq Islam, Ashiq Shamshir, Huseyn Sarajli, Emrah Gulmammadov, Huseyn Javan, Ashiq Kamandar, Imran Hasanov, Mikail Azafli, Akbar Jafarov and etc stand out. Ashiq art is especially widespread in the regions of Gazakh, Tovuz, Shamakhi, as well as in the historical settlements of Goycha and Borchali.

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